Dr. Leslie Gruis worked for the National Security Agency (NSA) for 30 years. As a career intelligence officer, Dr. Gruis contributed to the debate on alleged privacy abuses from the inside. She worked with government attorneys to explain the capabilities that technologies brought in order to develop legally defensible sources and methods to protect national security while also preserving civil rights. These experiences led to later assignments to US Cyber Command and the National Intelligence Council at the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Dr. Gruis holds a PhD in Applied Mathematics from Northwestern University, and an AB in Mathematics from The University of Chicago.